Query: NC_007984:221030 Baumannia cicadellinicola str. Hc (Homalodisca coagulata), complete Lineage: Baumannia cicadellinicola; Baumannia; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: This newly discovered organism is an obligate endosymbiont of the leafhopper insect Homalodisca coagulata (Say), also known as the Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter, which feeds on the xylem of plants. The insect causes devastation to grape crops and may affect other grasses as it is a vector for the bacterial pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa, which can cause disease in grapevines. Leafhopper insect endosymbiont. Baumannia cicadellinicola is found within bacteriomes, specialized organs in sharpshooter leafhoppers (Cicadellinae), and is transmitted vertically from female to offspring. This bacterium is found within a red-pigmented bacteriome within the host. The bacteria-insect relationship is one of nutritional co-dependence: the bacteria provide important metabolites for the insect's nutritional requirements, and in turn receive a safe environment and metabolites from the insect.
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General Information: Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B is a nonproteolytic botulism neurotoxin B strain. This strain was isolated from marine sediments taken off the coast of Washington, USA and was not associated with botulism. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.