Query: NC_007517:1676604 Geobacter metallireducens GS-15, complete genome Lineage: Geobacter metallireducens; Geobacter; Geobacteraceae; Desulfuromonadales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: First isolated from the Potomac river downstream of Washington, DC, USA in 1987. This organism actively moves towards metal attractants such as iron and manganese oxides, which are insoluble, and produces type IV pili for attachment to the insoluble substrates. Common metal-reducing bacterium. This organism, similar to what is observed in Geobacteria sulfurreducens, couples the oxidation of organic molecules to the reduction of iron by using insoluble Fe (III) as an electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. This bacterium plays an imporant part of the nutrient cycling in aquatic environments. The cell can also use uranium and plutonium, therefore, this organism and may be important for the bioremediation of contaminated waste sites.
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General Information: Isolated from Lake Gabara in Egypt. Extreme haloalkaliphilic archeon. Natronomonas pharaonis is able to survive at high salt and pH conditions which results in limited nitrogen availability through ammonium. In order to compensate for this, Natronomonas pharaonis has developed three systems to promote nitrogen assimilation: direct uptake of ammonia, uptake of nitrate, and uptake of urea. Another problem with high pH environments is the use of a proton gradient for the generation of ATP, which other alkaliphiles have adapted to by substitution of sodium ions for protons. However, this organism utilizes protons for ATP generation as determined by experimental data.