Query: NC_006833:449132 Wolbachia endosymbiont strain TRS of Brugia malayi, complete Lineage: Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi; Wolbachia; Anaplasmataceae; Rickettsiales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: A nematode endosymbiont. This group of bacteria are associated with a variety of invertebrate species, some as pathogens, some in a symbiotic relationship. Typically these organisms are transmitted maternally from mother to daughter transovarially (through the egg) although these bacteria can affect their hosts reproductive capabilities in order to enhance transmission. The net outcome is the increase of hosts carrying the bacteria in the next generation, thereby increasing transmission. This strain naturally infects Brugia malayi, a parasitic filarial nematode that causes lymphatic filariasis, one of the most devastating diseases in humans. The endosymbiont plays important roles in the biology of the nematide host. One of the known such effects are aberrant sex ratios in the host, parthenogenesis and feminization of genetic males, etc.
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General Information: Endosymbiont. Obligate intracellular bacterium infects around 20% of all insect species. Naturally infects Drosophila simulans and induces almost complete cytoplasmic incompatibility in its host. Wolbachia sp. subsp. Drosophila simulans (strain wRi) is an intracellular proteobacterium that infect insects as well as isopods, spiders, scorpions, mites, and filarial nematodes. It is maternally inherited and induces reproductive alterations of insect populations by male killing, feminization, parthenogenesis, or cytoplasmic incompatibility. In insect populations, Wolbachia sp. induce reproductive manipulations to enhance their own spreading. The most frequently observed reproductive abnormality is cytoplasmic incompatibility, where uninfected females are unable to produce offspring with infected males, whereas infected females can produce offspring with both infected and uninfected males, thus creating a reproductive advantage for infected females. Other spectacular effects of Wolbachia sp. infections are male embryo killing, feminization, and parthenogenesis induction.