Query: NC_004344:257471 Wigglesworthia glossinidia endosymbiont of Glossina brevipalpis, Lineage: Wigglesworthia glossinidia; Wigglesworthia; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: This organism is the obligate endosymbiont for the tsetse fly Glossina brevipalpis. As Wigglesworthia brevipalpis resides intracellularly, the resulting co-evolution with its host over millions of years has led to a drastic reduction in the bacterium's genome size, resulting in this its inability to survive outside the host. Tsetse fly endosymbiont. This organism is the obligate endosymbiont for the tsetse fly Glossina brevipalpis, Glossina tachinoides, Glossina palpalis palpalis, and Glossina austeni. The tsetse fly is a vector for African trypanosomes, and is the main transmitter of deadly diseases in animals and humans in Africa. The fly feeds on a restricted diet, exclusively consisting of vertebrate blood, and lacks certain metabolic compounds needed for survival and reproduction. To complement this lack in nutrients, the tsetse fly relies mainly on the intracellular bacterial symbiont, Wigglesworthia glossinidia for its viability and fecundity.
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General Information: Country: United Kingdom; Isolation: Sick cider; Temp: Mesophile. The natural habitat of this organism includes sugar-rich plant saps where the bacterium ferments sugar to ethanol. The high conversion of sugars to ethanol makes this organism useful in industrial production systems, particularly in production of bioethanol for fuel. A recombinant strain of this bacterium is utilized for the conversion of sugars, particularly xylose, which is not utilized by another common sugar-fermenting organism such as yeast, to ethanol. Since xylose is a common breakdown product of cellulose or a waste component of the agricultural industry, it is an attractive source for ethanol production. Zymomonas mobilis was chosen for this process as it is ethanol-tolerant (up to 120 grams of ethanol per litre) and productive (5-10% more ethanol than Saccharomyces). This bacterium ferments using the Enter-Doudoroff pathway, with the result that less carbon is used in cellular biomass production and more ends up as ethanol, another factor that favors this organism for ethanol production.