Query: NC_004344:257471 Wigglesworthia glossinidia endosymbiont of Glossina brevipalpis, Lineage: Wigglesworthia glossinidia; Wigglesworthia; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: This organism is the obligate endosymbiont for the tsetse fly Glossina brevipalpis. As Wigglesworthia brevipalpis resides intracellularly, the resulting co-evolution with its host over millions of years has led to a drastic reduction in the bacterium's genome size, resulting in this its inability to survive outside the host. Tsetse fly endosymbiont. This organism is the obligate endosymbiont for the tsetse fly Glossina brevipalpis, Glossina tachinoides, Glossina palpalis palpalis, and Glossina austeni. The tsetse fly is a vector for African trypanosomes, and is the main transmitter of deadly diseases in animals and humans in Africa. The fly feeds on a restricted diet, exclusively consisting of vertebrate blood, and lacks certain metabolic compounds needed for survival and reproduction. To complement this lack in nutrients, the tsetse fly relies mainly on the intracellular bacterial symbiont, Wigglesworthia glossinidia for its viability and fecundity.
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General Information: This organism is found in the aphid Baizongia pistaciae. Aphid endosymbiont. It is believed that the Buchnera provide the essential nutrients the host lacks. Besides a nutritional co-dependence, due to a co-existence of millions of years, Buchnera have lost the ability to produce cell surface components such as lipopolysaccharides. This makes for an obligate endosymbiont relationship between host and Buchnera. Buchnera are prokaryotic cells which belong to the gamma-Proteobacteria, closely related to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Phylogenetic studies using 16S rRNA indicate that the symbiotic relationship was established around 200-250 million years ago. Since Buchnera are closely related to Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae, comparative genomic studies can shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms of intracellular endosymbiosis as well as the different underlying molecular basis between organisms with parasitic behavior and symbionts.