Pre_GI: OUP Neighbours

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Query: NC_009698:38000 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

D: 21.6343

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

Number of Neighbours: 34

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Islands with an asterisk (*) contain ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

Subject IslandSubject Host Description Compositional Similarity Proposed Island FlowSubject Island D
NC_009697:38000*Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete99.7978 %Subject ←→ Query21.0567
NC_009495:38000*Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome97.883 %Subject ←→ Query22.2594
NC_009699:33452*Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome96.97 %Subject ←→ Query22.2813
NC_017297:33519*Clostridium botulinum F str. 230613 chromosome, complete genome97.114 %Subject ←→ Query22.8712
NC_012658:3827500*Clostridium botulinum Ba4 str. 657 chromosome, complete genome92.4295 %Subject ←→ Query23.0069
NC_015425:2690448*Clostridium botulinum BKT015925 chromosome, complete genome90.5729 %Subject ←→ Query23.0814
NC_017208:256163*Bacillus thuringiensis serovar chinensis CT-43 chromosome, complete80.8517 %Subject ←→ Query23.5449
NC_011725:4870223Bacillus cereus B4264 chromosome, complete genome76.4706 %Subject ←→ Query24.9713
NC_010321:429720*Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus ATCC 33223 chromosome, complete83.5539 %Subject ←→ Query25.0465
NC_012658:35500*Clostridium botulinum Ba4 str. 657 chromosome, complete genome95.4841 %Subject ←→ Query25.1205
NC_016627:4490435*Clostridium clariflavum DSM 19732 chromosome, complete genome82.114 %Subject ←→ Query25.3329
NC_003030:155554*Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, complete genome78.7224 %Subject ←→ Query25.4651
NC_015687:155554*Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1731 chromosome, complete genome78.557 %Subject ←→ Query25.4773
NC_017208:1*Bacillus thuringiensis serovar chinensis CT-43 chromosome, complete78.5876 %Subject ←→ Query25.5432
NC_010320:918532*Thermoanaerobacter sp. X514 chromosome, complete genome81.8627 %Subject ←→ Query25.9351
NC_018664:985689*Clostridium acidurici 9a chromosome, complete genome85.2757 %Subject ←→ Query25.959
NC_009706:3845039*Clostridium kluyveri DSM 555 chromosome, complete genome86.7279 %Subject ←→ Query27.6281
NC_017208:64500*Bacillus thuringiensis serovar chinensis CT-43 chromosome, complete78.3701 %Subject ←→ Query27.6621
NC_011837:3776541Clostridium kluyveri NBRC 12016, complete genome86.7341 %Subject ←→ Query27.884
NC_010321:2256758Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus ATCC 33223 chromosome, complete83.2108 %Subject ←→ Query28.01
NC_014171:1*Bacillus thuringiensis BMB171 chromosome, complete genome78.5233 %Subject ←→ Query28.4052
NC_009922:2590317*Alkaliphilus oremlandii OhILAs, complete genome79.2096 %Subject ←→ Query28.7836
NC_010320:33814*Thermoanaerobacter sp. X514 chromosome, complete genome82.7543 %Subject ←→ Query29.5127
NC_017208:516127*Bacillus thuringiensis serovar chinensis CT-43 chromosome, complete79.4669 %Subject ←→ Query29.7645
NC_014171:521996*Bacillus thuringiensis BMB171 chromosome, complete genome80.0582 %Subject ←→ Query30.1532
NC_018664:3009166*Clostridium acidurici 9a chromosome, complete genome86.0539 %Subject ←→ Query30.2312
NC_016584:85543*Desulfosporosinus orientis DSM 765 chromosome, complete genome76.4645 %Subject ←→ Query31.2553
NC_018704:81733*Amphibacillus xylanus NBRC 15112, complete genome77.2212 %Subject ←→ Query31.3096
NC_014614:554949*Clostridium sticklandii, complete genome82.7022 %Subject Query31.7606
NC_014171:261952Bacillus thuringiensis BMB171 chromosome, complete genome81.0968 %Subject Query32.2886
NC_014171:235558*Bacillus thuringiensis BMB171 chromosome, complete genome76.4553 %Subject Query34.2266
NC_015760:123929*Streptococcus salivarius CCHSS3, complete genome75.723 %Subject Query37.0106
NC_004193:79588*Oceanobacillus iheyensis HTE831, complete genome77.0803 %Subject Query40.5153
NC_014171:71963*Bacillus thuringiensis BMB171 chromosome, complete genome77.019 %Subject Query40.659