Pre_GI Gene

Some Help

Host: NC_017179 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017179:905347 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
905347906066720hypothetical proteinBLASTP
9062349072381005LacI family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
907504908400897putative hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA lyaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
9085389098001263hypothetical proteinBLASTP
9098769110691194beta-alanine CoA-transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
9116989124927953-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
9125869139261341permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
9140639152951233CoA-transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
9153359164771143acyl-CoA dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
916488917282795electron transfer flavoprotein subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
9172969183151020electron transfer flavoprotein alpha-subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
9184149197901377sigma-54-dependent transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
920122920466345hypothetical proteinBLASTP
9209549219641011hypothetical proteinBLASTP
922100922588489flavodoxinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
9227649246921929signaling proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
924867925277411universal stress proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
925299925601303PTS system IIb componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP