Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017179 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017179:805867 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
805867806790924hypothetical proteinBLASTP
806795807001207hypothetical proteinBLASTP
8071378088911755adenosylcobamide-dependent radical SAM proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8089098100511143hypothetical proteinBLASTP
810372811283912phosphate butyryltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8118908138091920bifunctional carbon monoxide dehydrogenaseacetyl-CoA synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
814119814898780carbon monoxide dehydrogenase accessory proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8151478168231677formate--tetrahydrofolate ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
816928817560633methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
817652818524873bifunctional 510-methylene-tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 510-methylene-tetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
818561819235675hypothetical proteinBLASTP
819271820152882methylenetetrahydrofolate reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8201968215811386carbon monoxide dehydrogenaseacetyl-CoA synthase complex dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
821637822407771carbon monoxide dehydrogenaseacetyl-CoA synthase complex nickel-inserting subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
822427823371945acetyl-CoA decarbonylasesynthase complex subunit deltaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8234028247691368acetyl-CoA decarbonylasesynthase complex subunit gammaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
824819825625807carbon monoxide dehydrogenaseacetyl-CoA synthase complex methyltransferase subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8256828278082127bifunctional acetyl-CoA decarbonylasesynthase complex subunit alphabetaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
827895828272378glycine cleavage system protein HQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8283848303121929iron-sulfur proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
830337831209873putative radical SAM superfamily proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
831206832144939radical SAM proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
832191833006816putative biotinlipoate-protein ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
833157833348192hypothetical proteinBLASTP
833367833783417hypothetical proteinBLASTP
833799834149351hypothetical proteinBLASTP
834689835468780histidinol-phosphataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
835781836662882hypothetical proteinBLASTP
837215837727513hypothetical proteinBLASTP
8385558396521098aminotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP