Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017179 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017179:446564 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4465644481471584asparagine synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
448212448808597radical SAM proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
448835449362528hypothetical proteinBLASTP
449724450722999D-lactate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4513994525981200isocaprenoyl-CoA2-hydroxyisocaproate CoA-transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
452637453437801activator of 2-hydroxyisocaproyl-CoA dehydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4534524546781227oxygen-sensitive 2-hydroxyisocaproyl-CoA dehydratase subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4546784558051128oxygen-sensitive 2-hydroxyisocaproyl-CoA dehydratase subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4558534569861134acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
457019457804786electron transfer flavoprotein subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4578234588601038electron transfer flavoprotein alpha subunitFixB family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4593434609741632sigma-54-dependent transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
461109462035927putative fructose-bisphosphate aldolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
462365462694330hypothetical proteinBLASTP
462694462906213pseudouridine synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4635454646631119transposase-like protein bQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
464782465300519pseudouridine synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4653334666881356putative tRNA uracil-5--methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP