Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017179 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017179:4023139 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
402313940244971359multidrug resistance proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40249454025397453hypothetical proteinBLASTP
40255544026171618hypothetical proteinBLASTP
402669940293802682collagen-binding surface proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40296054029928324conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40299434030326384conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40304224030835414hypothetical proteinBLASTP
40309424031400459hypothetical proteinBLASTP
40314254031967543hypothetical proteinBLASTP
40320244032530507hypothetical proteinBLASTP
403294340340341092conjugative transposon FtsK_SpoIIIE-related proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
403431440354351122conjugative transposon replication initiation factorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40354424035576135conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40355774035798222conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40361184036756639chloramphenicol o-acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40368334037021189hypothetical protein
40370424037539498conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40375554038058504conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40381714038560390conjugative transposon membrane proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
403854740409792433conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
404097940431142136conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
404311140441181008cell wall hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40441344045027894conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40452404046097858hypothetical proteinBLASTP
40461754046756582transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40468604047705846ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40477024048385684ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40483824049080699ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40490924050003912hypothetical proteinBLASTP
40503114050502192hypothetical protein
40505264050756231hypothetical proteinBLASTP
40510224051312291hypothetical proteinBLASTP
40513124051446135hypothetical proteinBLASTP
405142740526081182integraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40529484053760813MerR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
405383640550531218potassiumproton antiporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
405521940563371119transposase-like protein bQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40563394056446108transposase-like protein AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP