Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017179 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017179:3984000 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39843863984955570resolvaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39851583985385228hypothetical proteinBLASTP
39856043986347744hypothetical proteinBLASTP
39865153987387873putative SAM-dependent methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39873873988052666pseudouridylate synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39880733988930858MerR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
398908639916322547ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39916323992318687ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39924013993390990two-component sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39933773994063687two-component response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
399456339977693207carbamoyl phosphate synthase large subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
399796239990111050carbamoyl phosphate synthase small subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
399926940024753207carbamoyl phosphate synthase large subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
400252840035711044carbamoyl phosphate synthase small subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40035974004313717orotidine 5-phosphate decarboxylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
40046894005324636hypothetical proteinBLASTP
40053484006262915hypothetical proteinBLASTP