Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017179 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017179:3621306 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
362130636230811776sigma-54 interacting proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36232933623862570hypothetical proteinBLASTP
36240463624681636single-stranded DNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36253493626230882hypothetical proteinBLASTP
362635036273571008proline racemaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36273773627850474hypothetical proteinBLASTP
36278773628344468hypothetical proteinBLASTP
36283593629117759hypothetical proteinBLASTP
36299603630244285hypothetical proteinBLASTP
363032536322051881proline reductase subunit proproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
363263436343941761sigma-54-dependent transcriptional activatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
363519536365081314electron transfer proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36368973637661765polysaccharide deacetylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36379523638155204small acid-soluble spore protein BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36383453638881537hypothetical proteinBLASTP
36388853639751867hypothetical proteinBLASTP
36398993640144246hypothetical proteinBLASTP
364025836415561299putative folylpolyglutamate synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP