Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017179 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017179:3540739 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
354073935417461008glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
354180635428281023central glycolytic genes regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
354362535449711347RNA polymerase sigma-54 factorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
354512335476842562xanthine dehydrogenase molybdenum binding and iron-sulfur binding subunitsQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
354767835490691392D-hydantoinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
354935235504611110dihydroorotate dehydrogenase catalytic subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
355065335520051353xanthine permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
355220435535321329putative chlorohydrolaseaminohydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
355356035551431584D-aminoacylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
355515935563461188peptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
355667935578931215diaminopropionate ammonia-lyaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35585163559055540hypothetical proteinBLASTP
355913235609371806sigma-54-dependent transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP