Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017179 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017179:3222015 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
322201532231601146signaling proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
322325032249681719ABC transporter permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32249733225962990ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
322605832271071050ABC transporter substrate-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32273843228052669V-type ATP synthase subunit DQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
322805832294311374V-type ATP synthase subunit BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
322942832312061779V-type ATP synthase subunit AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32313233231640318V-type ATP synthase subunit FQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32316333232610978V-type ATP synthase subunit CQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32326253233188564V-type sodium ATP synthase subunit EQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32332403233731492V-type ATP synthase subunit KQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
323373432356591926V-type sodium ATP synthase subunit IQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32356613235972312hypothetical proteinBLASTP
32366023236877276hypothetical proteinBLASTP
323699232384011410peptidoglycan-binding exported proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32387713239433663hypothetical proteinBLASTP
323968732419062220signaling proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP