Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017179 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017179:2895571 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
289557128968451275extracellular solute-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
289712928982861158cell division proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28984762898829354hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28989282899602675hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28996072900305699hypothetical proteinBLASTP
29003282901068741putative cell division proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
290133829025641227UDP-N-acetylglucosamine--N-acetylmuramyl-penta peptide pyrophosphoryl-undecaprenol N-acetylglucosamine transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
290258229037121131cell divisionstage V sporulation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
290376429051191356UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanine--D-glutamate ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29051382906106969phospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-pentapeptide- transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
290614729075201374UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-tripeptide--D-alanyl-D-ala nine ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
290768729096661980stage V sporulation protein DinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29096782910025348hypothetical proteinBLASTP
2910511291144693616S rRNA m4C1402 methyltranserfaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29114762912222747prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
291261929139051287peptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
291392029151851266peptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
291550129165981098GTP-binding protein YchFQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
291707729193562280signaling proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP