Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017179 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017179:281069 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2810692823341266sugar-phosphate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
282422283138717hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
283333283626294spore coat proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
283632283847216hypothetical proteinBLASTP
284392284904513nitroreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
285354285830477phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase catalytic subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
285836286534699phosphoribosylaminoimidazole-succinocarboxamide synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2865462879131368amidophosphoribosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2879072889831077phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
288977289570594phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2895632910951533bifunctional phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferaseIMP cyclohydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2911062923561251phosphoribosylamine--glycine ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2923812961873807formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
296393297265873dtdp-4-dehydrorhamnose reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
297374298255882glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
298292298849558dtdp-4-dehydrorhamnose 35-epimeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
298887299870984dtdp-glucose 46-dehydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
299909300577669transglycosylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
300586301014429hypothetical proteinBLASTP
301038301352315flagellar motor switch proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
301504301779276negative regulator of flagellin synthesisQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
301784302200417flagellar biosynthesis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3022183035281311putative flagellar hook-associated proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
303547304479933flagellar hook-associated proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP