Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017179 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017179:2539031 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
253903125405301500inosine 5-monophosphate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
254061525417721158toxic anion resistance proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25418872542807921hypothetical proteinBLASTP
254309425442121119NAD-dependent 4-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2544232254553913084-hydroxybutyrate CoA transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25455632545838276hypothetical proteinBLASTP
254597325474691497gamma-aminobutyrate metabolism dehydrataseisomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
254766225490531392succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
254908425506281545acetyl-CoA hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
255065525520401386hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25524752553347873LysR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25535342554133600hypothetical proteinBLASTP
255424625553251080Xaa-Pro dipeptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
255563525567801146glycinesarcosinebetaine reductase complex component C subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
255679125583231533glycinesarcosinebetaine reductase complex component C subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25585802558813234glycine reductase complex component B gamma subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
255884125598901050glycine reductase complex component B gamma subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
256050725617931287glycine reductase complex component B subunits alphabetaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25620622562379318thioredoxinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25624642563411948thioredoxin-disulfide reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25635072563878372glycine reductase complex componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
256442425661181695oligoendopeptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25666102567431822hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25677232568208486hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25682212568973753aliphatic sulfonate ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25689732569110138hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25691502569779630ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25697402570303564hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25703132570537225hypothetical proteinBLASTP
257054225716331092sulfonate ABC transporter solute-binding lipoproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25716682572126459hypothetical proteinBLASTP
257211925732041086permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP