Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017179 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017179:2513804 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25131222513817696ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25138042514535732hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25148502515650801hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25161912516907717two-component response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
251687625184681593two-component sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
251878025202821503phosphoglucomutaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25203922521057666ribulose-phosphate 3-epimeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25210962521542447ribose-5-phosphate isomerase 1QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25217172522637921transketolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25226402523452813transketolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
252354425245751032carbohydrate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
252457525256271053galactitol-1-phosphate 5-dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
252575725270311275PTS system galactitol-specific transporter subunit IICQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25270902527365276PTS system galactitol-specific transporter subunit IIBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25274262527884459PTS system galactitol-specific transporter subunit IIAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
252847325313972925sigma-54 interacting transcription antiterminatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25315492532199651putative translaldolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25322632532835573xanthine phosphoribosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
253322525343761152mannitol-1-phosphate 5-dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25343952534817423PTS system mannitol-specific transporter subunit IIAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
253484725369762130putative transcription antiterminatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP