Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017179 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017179:1683199 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
168319916843291131prophage lambdaba04 site-specific recombinase phage integrase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16844081685115708hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16851281685997870HipA-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1686306168637772prophage lambdaba04 site-specific recombinase phage integrase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16866171687123507hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16871991687747549phage regulatory proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16877591688100342phage repressorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16882771688480204PbsX family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16885281689337810hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16893841689593210hypothetical protein
16896031689977375hypothetical protein
16900531690250198phage regulatory proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16902811690673393hypothetical protein
16908741691311438hypothetical proteinBLASTP
169132316924891167hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16925041692839336hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16928921693464573hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16934871694059573hypothetical proteinBLASTP
169405916960171959dna-directed dna polymerase iQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
169602916984462418virulence-associated protein eQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16987281699054327phage-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
169900317003731371snf2-related proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17005271701006480hypothetical proteinBLASTP
17012891701741453hypothetical proteinBLASTP
17020331703007975hypothetical proteinBLASTP
17036071704299693phage DNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
170428017055301251phage terminase large subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
170553617069781443phage portal proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
170696817085031536phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP