Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017179 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017179:1378875 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13788751379612738NAD-dependent deacetylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
137982713816501824mannosyl-glycoprotein endo-beta-N-acetylglucosamidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
138186513861634299DNA polymerase III PolC-typeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13863671386828462hypothetical proteinBLASTP
138685813880121155transcription elongation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13880251388300276hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13882901388601312ribosomal proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
138862313905631941translation initiation factor IF-2QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13906061390986381ribosome-binding factor AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13909791391950972RNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13919631392868906tRNA pseudouridine synthase BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13929991393928930riboflavin biosynthesis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1394032139428925830S ribosomal protein S15QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13945291395374846hypothetical proteinBLASTP
139549913976102112polynucleotide phosphorylasepolyadenylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP