Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017179 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017179:1239991 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
123999112413821392FADFMN-containing dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
124164512429251281hypothetical proteinBLASTP
124338812445841197acetate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12446771245201525hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1245226124540217750S ribosomal protein L32QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12456091246166558fatty acid biosynthesis transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
124617712471991023putative phosphate acyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
124722512482119873-oxoacyl-acyl-carrier-protein synthase IIIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12483201249249930trans-2-enoyl-ACP reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12492651250215951malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
125021512509647503-oxoacyl-ACP reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12510181251242225acyl carrier proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1251271125250912393-oxoacyl-acyl-carrier-protein synthase IIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
125273512544531719signaling proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
125448412564842001sigma-54 dependent transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12568321257077246hypothetical proteinBLASTP
12571121257837726putative glutamine amidotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
125785912591721314amino acid permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP