Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017179 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017179:1197763 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11971681197770603dephospho-CoA kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11977631198317555transglycosylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
119831712000321716solute-binding lipoproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12001051200317213heavy-metal binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12005181201117600hypothetical proteinBLASTP
12013451201716372lactoylglutathione lyaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
120184812031221275cell wall hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12032331204177945hypothetical proteinBLASTP
120439312057301338electron transport complex proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12057531206730978electron transport complex proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12067301207299570electron transport complex proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12073121207905594electron transport complex proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12079201208495576electron transport complex proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12085111209482972electron transport complex proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12097021210286585Maf-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12103311210990660DNA repair proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
121106012121211062rod shape-determining protein MreBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12121311213024894putative rod shape-determining protein precursorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12130391213527489rod shape-determining protein MreDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
121353912165172979putative penicillin-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12166151217298684septum site-determining proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12173221218119798septum site-determining protein cell division inhibitorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12181371218421285cell division topological specificity factor MinEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
121850612196361131rod shape-determining proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
12196771220090414methylglyoxal synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP