Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017179 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017179:1133510 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11335101134310801inorganic polyphosphateATP-NAD kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11344451135317873ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11353051135991687ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11360431136585543hypothetical proteinBLASTP
11366641137131468regulatory proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
113783911389751137butyryl-CoA dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11390341139816783electron transfer flavoprotein subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
113983511408451011electron transfer flavoprotein alpha-subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
114086411416617983-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
114175911426048463-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
114269111438661176acetyl-CoA acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11440611144963903pseudouridylate synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
114497711459811005hypothetical proteinBLASTP
11461251146352228acyl carrier proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11465241146949426hypothetical proteinBLASTP
11469971147203207hypothetical protein
11473851147564180hypothetical proteinBLASTP
11475981147798201hypothetical proteinBLASTP
114805111490671017LacI family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
11491901149588399hypothetical proteinBLASTP
11498001150705906hypothetical proteinBLASTP
115118311524001218hypothetical proteinBLASTP