Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017177 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017177:91993 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
9199392577585hypothetical proteinBLASTP
9260692806201hypothetical protein
9300493447444hypothetical protein
9351193813303hypothetical protein
9383594377543hypothetical protein
9454795110564hypothetical proteinBLASTP
9533995698360XRE family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
9635996619261hypothetical proteinBLASTP
9671397126414hypothetical proteinBLASTP
9729297543252hypothetical protein
9774998573825hypothetical proteinBLASTP
9876899076309hypothetical protein
9915799837681hypothetical proteinBLASTP
100130100612483hypothetical proteinBLASTP
100796101341546hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1021481044662319hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1047141057301017hypothetical proteinBLASTP
105942106808867putative DNA modification methylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
107018107494477hypothetical proteinBLASTP
107676108113438hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1083451093671023hypothetical proteinBLASTP
109764110246483hypothetical proteinBLASTP
110295110477183hypothetical protein
110643110876234hypothetical protein
111118111288171hypothetical protein
111492112439948hypothetical proteinBLASTP
112814113497684hypothetical proteinBLASTP
114946115314369hypothetical protein
1171861202873102hypothetical protein
120684121265582hypothetical proteinBLASTP
121784122584801hypothetical proteinBLASTP
123205123693489hypothetical proteinBLASTP
124092124439348hypothetical proteinBLASTP
124467124907441hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1253731267491377hemagglutininadhesinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP