Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017177 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017177:192933 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1929331947531821hypothetical proteinBLASTP
194771195619849N-6 DNA methylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
195844196719876hypothetical protein
1967791981401362NucleotidyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1981681992711104hypothetical proteinBLASTP
199537199986450hypothetical proteinBLASTP
2002442034443201hypothetical proteinBLASTP
2035552062032649hypothetical protein
2062232081451923Type IV secretory pathway VirB4 component-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
208162209130969hypothetical proteinBLASTP
209127209435309hypothetical protein
209587210018432hypothetical protein
210132210779648Sporulation sigma factor SigKQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
210930211382453hypothetical protein
211525212190666Thiol-disulfide isomerase-like thioredoxinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP