Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017177 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017177:175000 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
175049175585537TraGTraDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
175873176235363hypothetical proteinBLASTP
176240176494255hypothetical proteinBLASTP
176694176888195hypothetical protein
176992177474483TraGTraDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
177542178420879hypothetical proteinBLASTP
178581178799219hypothetical proteinBLASTP
178802179362561hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1795451805911047hypothetical proteinBLASTP
180704181534831hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1817061832891584hypothetical proteinBLASTP
183584184042459hypothetical proteinBLASTP
186021186404384hypothetical protein
1866711876751005hypothetical proteinBLASTP
188026188706681hypothetical proteinBLASTP
188912189484573hypothetical proteinBLASTP
189519189854336hypothetical protein
1899591909901032hypothetical protein
191049192008960metal dependent phosphohydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
192257192925669hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1929331947531821hypothetical proteinBLASTP