Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_017177 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_017177:136082 Clostridium difficile BI1, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium difficile BI1 is a human strain isolated in the United States in 1988. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infection represents one of the most common nosocomial (originating in a hospital) infections. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Cytotoxin B depolymerizes actin, the major protein of the cytoskeleton, and thus aids in destruction of tissues. The combined action of the toxins results in necrosis of superficial epithelium and edema (fluidic swelling) in affected areas of intestine. Proliferation of C. difficile is normally prevented by normal intestinal microflora, which is believed to inhibit attachment of the bacterium and its toxins to intestinal walls. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1360821373831302NERD domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
138056138880825hypothetical proteinBLASTP
139285140004720hypothetical proteinBLASTP
140392140997606hypothetical proteinBLASTP
141635142618984hypothetical proteinBLASTP
143244143444201hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1456741477492076hypothetical proteinBLASTP
148792148977186hypothetical protein
149004149327324hypothetical protein
149375149647273hypothetical protein
150254150505252hypothetical protein
152286152945660hypothetical proteinBLASTP
153524153790267hypothetical protein
154240154479240hypothetical protein