Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_015425 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_015425:718384 Clostridium botulinum BKT015925 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
717563718396834CobQCobBMinDParA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
718384719232849CobQCobBMinDParA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
719355719711357dinitrogenase iron-molybdenum cofactor family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
719735720169435hypothetical proteinBLASTP
720339721061723chitooligosaccharide deacetylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
721072721194123hypothetical protein
721291722094804LysM-repeat-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
7224997235541056transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
723648724316669deoxyribose-phosphate aldolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
7243327255371206phosphopentomutaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
725618726436819purine nucleoside phosphorylase IQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
7264747277991326pyrimidine-nucleoside phosphorylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
7279577291711215nucleoside permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
7293327301388075-nucleotidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
730281731237957hypothetical protein
731621731815195thiamine biosynthesis protein ThiSQuickGO ontology
731818732459642thiamine biosynthesis protein ThiFQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
732473733237765thiazole biosynthesis family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
7332507343531104thiazole biosynthesis protein ThiHQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
734322734972651thiamine-phosphate pyrophosphorylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
735063735812750putative xylanasechitin deacetylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
7358577370141158hypothetical proteinBLASTP
7373357385731239Na-driven multidrug efflux pumpQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
7386537412622610Lysyl transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP