Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_015425 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_015425:34861 Clostridium botulinum BKT015925 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34861361051245pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
365003657576tRNA-ValQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
365893666577tRNA-AspQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
368523692776tRNA-ValQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
369413701777tRNA-AspQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3720538164960DNA replication protein DnaCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3819039107918putative DNA replication protein DnaDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
39335410471713hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4129741770474MarR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
41776427509753-oxoacyl-ACP synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4279143021231acyl carrier proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
43081440319512-nitropropane dioxygenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4402444968945malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
44968457207533-oxoacyl-ACP reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
45761470021242beta-ketoacyl synthase-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4700647485480acetyl-CoA carboxylase biotin carboxyl carrier proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
47498479264293-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
47927492791353acetyl-CoA carboxylase biotin carboxylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4932450184861acetyl-CoA carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5021851162945acetyl-CoA carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5139652241846amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5227352980708amino acid ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5297353695723ABC transporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5386254800939alpha hemolysinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5507455694621hypothetical proteinBLASTP
55854582052352hypothetical proteinBLASTP
58251594951245cinA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP