Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_015425 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_015425:2752482 Clostridium botulinum BKT015925 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
275248227547042223sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
275482627575552730membrane proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
275756927580965283H domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27580982758562465hypothetical proteinBLASTP
2758688275876376tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
275884827589641175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
276406027666092550DNA gyrase subunit AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
276663127685381908DNA gyrase subunit BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27685542768823270hypothetical proteinBLASTP
276884727699291083DNA replication and repair protein RecFQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27699802770186207S4 domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
277022327713261104DNA polymerase III subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
277158227729341353chromosomal replication initiator protein DnaAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP