Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_015425 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_015425:2277570 Clostridium botulinum BKT015925 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22775702278052483citrulline cluster-linked proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22784012278979579hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22793322280276945hypothetical protein
22803712280598228AAA ATPaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
228103722836342598putative polysaccharide lyaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
228377922838841065S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22887462288985240hypothetical protein
2289276228935176tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22895852290127543Appr-1-p processing enzyme family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22904152291074660lytic murein transglycosylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22911282291826699hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22918342292655822hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22926902293643954hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22938192293977159hypothetical proteinBLASTP
229414922953271179metallo-beta-lactamase superfamily proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
229543722970891653methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22971342297874741short chain dehydrogenasereductase family oxidoreductase proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22979112298432522cobIyrinic acid ac-diamide adenosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22985232299167645tRNA guanine-N7--methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22992302299874645Sterol-regulatory element binding protein SREBP site 2 proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP