Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_015425 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_015425:2144639 Clostridium botulinum BKT015925 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21446392145532894ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21455292145924396GntR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21461142147046933Patatin-like phospholipaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21473782148181804phosphomethylpyrimidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21482102149007798hydroxyethylthiazole kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21489982149612615thiamine-phosphate diphosphorylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21496732149840168hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21499142150375462hypothetical proteinBLASTP
215050421506201175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21557292156664936hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21569032157670768hypothetical proteinBLASTP
215785821590031146hypothetical protein
215909521603961302glutamate-1-semialdehyde 21-aminomutaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21604022161373972porphobilinogen synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
216142621629221497uroporphyrinogen III synthasemethyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21629242163826903porphobilinogen deaminaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21638552164436582siroheme synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
216446621657191254glutamyl-tRNA reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21658532166767915anaerobic sulfite reductase subunit CQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21668172166930114hypothetical protein
216698521682891305NaH antiporter family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21684902168942453hypothetical proteinBLASTP
216953321696411095S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21744392174690252hypothetical protein
217496421762831320ISBma2 transposaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
217650321781971695glutaminyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21784942178637144putative prophage LambdaBa02 lipoproteinQuickGO ontology
217876321794166543-oxoacid CoA-transferase subunit BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21794362180152717acetate CoA-transferase subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21806852181578894integral membrane proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2181652218274310922-nitropropane dioxygenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
218291021841061197ISBma2 transposaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
218432421856041281type I phosphodiesterasenucleotide pyrophosphatase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
218586621874491584ABC transporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP