Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_015425 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_015425:1687050 Clostridium botulinum BKT015925 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
168705016890081959sensory transduction histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
168917116908471677single-stranded-DNA-specific exonuclease RecJQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16910181691836819AP endonucleaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16918761692415540flavin reductase domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16925161692728213copper ion binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
169276016952072448heavy metal translocating P-type ATPaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16952351695498264hypothetical proteinBLASTP
169562016968401221zinc proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16970281697618591hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16977801698565786enoyl-CoA hydrataseisomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
169888016998871008electron transfer flavoprotein subunit alphabeta-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16999131700692780electron transfer flavoprotein subunit alphabeta-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
170071817018571140acyl-CoA dehydrogenase domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
170211017050222913GyrAParC subunit family DNA topoisomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
170506717070251959DNA topoisomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
170714917081831035ISCb1g3 transposaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17085521708941390hypothetical proteinBLASTP
17090151709941927hypothetical proteinBLASTP
17100301710731702purine nucleoside phosphorylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP