Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_015425 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_015425:163000 Clostridium botulinum BKT015925 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
163235163759525hypothetical protein
1637911655211731stage II sporulation protein EQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1656221670251404cell cycle protein MesJQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
167030167569540hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1676331696211989ATP-dependent metalloprotease FtsHQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
169753170148396hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1702501719201671formate--tetrahydrofolate ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
172039172824786putative Baf family transcriptional acitvatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
172843173805963putative TIM-barrel protein nifR3 familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
174106174561456transcription elongation factor GreAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1746101761421533lysyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17625817633275tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontology
1766081779991392glycyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1783511797271377UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanine--D-glutamate ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP