Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_015417 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_015417:39633 Clostridium botulinum BKT015925 plasmid p1BKT015925, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3963340061429hypothetical protein
4016740391225hypothetical protein
4056940883315hypothetical protein
4093341298366hypothetical protein
41536429151380putative phospho-adenylylsulfate sulfotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4298043174195hypothetical protein
4322443703480hypothetical protein
4378044238459hypothetical protein
4431745108792hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4508045292213putative cytosine-specific DNA methylotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4532946285957putative cytosine-specific DNA methylotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
46373474221050putative cytosine-specific DNA methylotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4749647834339ArsR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4796648928963permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4902349361339putative redox-active disulfide protein 2QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4938549969585maltose O-acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5018550403219hypothetical protein
5043651014579putative guanylate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5114051559420hypothetical protein
5162851891264phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5189852032135hypothetical protein
5233852904567hypothetical proteinBLASTP
5326553387123hypothetical protein
53652553281677group II intron reverse transcriptasemutaraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
55386566061221integrase catalytic subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5673057425696IstB ATP binding domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5744257750309putative HNH endonucleaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5788258067186hypothetical protein
5807358432360hypothetical protein
5842958710282hypothetical protein
5903359206174hypothetical protein
5938059964585hypothetical proteinBLASTP
60322615961275phage-like proteinQuickGO ontology
61653627231071hypothetical proteinBLASTP