Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_012658 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_012658:482313 Clostridium botulinum Ba4 str. 657 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum Ba4 str. 657 was isolated from an infant botulism case in 1976. The strain is a bivalent Ba strain, that simultaneously produces two different toxin types. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.


This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4823134849132601clpB proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
485104485832729glutamine amidotransferase CobBCobQ familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4858904872511362putative UDP-N-acetylmuramyl tripeptide synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
487516488496981mannose-6-phosphate isomerase class IQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4888464899611116putative lipoproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
490069490923855UDP pyrophosphate phosphataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
490947491069123hypothetical protein
49297749305478tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4962164963321175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
496519497382864metallo-beta-lactamase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
497519498241723putative 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4991645005251362HMGL-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5006685025931926aconitate hydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
502796503794999dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
504209504991783polar amino acid uptake family ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5055145072801767NaH antiporter family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP