Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_012658 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_012658:3678000 Clostridium botulinum Ba4 str. 657 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum Ba4 str. 657 was isolated from an infant botulism case in 1976. The strain is a bivalent Ba strain, that simultaneously produces two different toxin types. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36788923679296405cytidine deaminaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36794463680384939NAD-dependent epimerasedehydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36809213681442522riboflavin biosynthesis protein RibD C- domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36818553682043189hypothetical proteinBLASTP
36821993683143945hypothetical proteinBLASTP
36833883683789402RRF2 family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36848973685439543hypothetical proteinBLASTP
368606136886342574ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36886313689314684lipoprotein-releasing system ATP-binding protein LolDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36893973690386990sensor protein ResEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36903793691059681response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36910563691250195putative transposaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36919453693330138623S rRNA uracil-5--methyltransferase RumAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36935643693917354hypothetical proteinBLASTP
369424836952581011aldoketo reductase family oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
369540236971591758pyruvate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
369719336981529606-phosphofructokinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
369839437019513558DNA polymerase III DnaEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP