Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_012658 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_012658:3387774 Clostridium botulinum Ba4 str. 657 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum Ba4 str. 657 was isolated from an infant botulism case in 1976. The strain is a bivalent Ba strain, that simultaneously produces two different toxin types. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
338777433895011728phosphoglucomutasephosphomannomutase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3390450339098653750S ribosomal protein L25general stress protein CtcQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
339119133926511461OrnLysArg decarboxylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33928373393670834hypothetical proteinBLASTP
33940573394959903phosphate acetylbutyryl transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
339542233964351014dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33966713397141471hypothetical proteinBLASTP
339732933996952367recombination and DNA strand exchange inhibitor proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
339982934021952367peptidase U32 familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34029183403796879hypothetical proteinBLASTP
340400134058301830hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34060003406590591hypothetical proteinBLASTP
340694234080181077beta 14 glucosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34082013408428228exosporium protein JQuickGO ontology
34087673409360594hypothetical proteinBLASTP
340956534119462382phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP