Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_012658 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_012658:3213498 Clostridium botulinum Ba4 str. 657 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum Ba4 str. 657 was isolated from an infant botulism case in 1976. The strain is a bivalent Ba strain, that simultaneously produces two different toxin types. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32134983214196699diacylglycerol kinasePAP2 family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32142373214737501putative metalloproteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
321473432168212088putative hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
321684432180041161sporulation protein YqfDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32179943218290297sporulation protein YqfCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32184043218850447GatBYqey domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3218893321906917730S ribosomal protein S21QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32192063219550345HIT family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
321960732209051299MiaB family RNA modification proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3220905322166375916S ribosomal RNA methyltransferase RsmEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32217613222699939ribosomal protein L11 methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
322305832242031146chaperone protein DnaJQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
322434632262171872molecular chaperone DnaKQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32262723226916645heat shock protein GrpEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
322694332279741032heat-inducible transcription repressorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
322817532293171143coproporphyrinogen III oxidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
322934432311521809GTP-binding protein LepAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
32312933231688396hypothetical proteinBLASTP