Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_012658 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_012658:1 Clostridium botulinum Ba4 str. 657 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum Ba4 str. 657 was isolated from an infant botulism case in 1976. The strain is a bivalent Ba strain, that simultaneously produces two different toxin types. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16415101347chromosomal replication initiation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
177328761104DNA polymerase III subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28963102207S4 domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
317142651095recombination protein FQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
42864549264hypothetical proteinBLASTP
456764801914DNA gyrase subunit BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
650689862481DNA gyrase subunit AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
14119142351175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
143231440078tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1456215014453hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1503015551522transcriptional regulator biotin repressor familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15553167161164iron-sulfur cluster-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16721194022682hypothetical proteinBLASTP