Pre_GI Gene

Some Help

Host: NC_012563 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_012563:3729817 Clostridium botulinum A2 str. Kyoto, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was isolated from a case of infant botulism in Kyoto, Japan in 1978. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
372981737308211005D-lactate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37309963731991996D-lactate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
373280537339831179hypothetical proteinBLASTP
373419937353951197electron transfer flavoprotein alpha subunitFixB family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37354133736207795electron transfer flavoprotein beta subunitFixA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
373622037373531134acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
373752037386441125R-phenyllactate dehydratase C subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
373864637398691224R-phenyllactate dehydratase B subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37398743740668795R-phenyllactate dehydratase activatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
374066837419061239E-cinnamoyl-CoAR-phenyllactate CoA transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
374196037435911632AMP-binding enzymeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
374405737453971341branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
374585537473871533GMP synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
374740037488541455inosine-5-monophosphate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37492953750044750PP-loop family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
375012337517481626chaperonin GroELQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37517783752065288chaperonin 10 kDaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37523813753025645integral membrane protein TIGR01906QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37530203753754735hypothetical proteinBLASTP
375420737557001494Fe hydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37558733756790918putative 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
375694037583221383glutamate synthase NADPH homotetramericQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37583223759212891oxidoreductase NAD-bindingQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37594423760074633transcriptional regulator Rex familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
376027437621961923putative drug resistance ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37625373763301765DNA-binding response regulator LytTr familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
376330237649361635sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
376517237665901419carbon starvation protein CstAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP