Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_012563 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_012563:3090954 Clostridium botulinum A2 str. Kyoto, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was isolated from a case of infant botulism in Kyoto, Japan in 1978. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.


StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
309095430923751422glycosyl transferase group 2 familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30923843092731348hypothetical proteinBLASTP
309273530944381704hypothetical proteinBLASTP
309446330963881926glycosyl transferase group 2 familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30965873097414828flagellinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30976283098455828flagellinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30986053098946342hypothetical proteinBLASTP
309897331014082436Flagellar hook-associated protein 2QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31014623101851390flagellar protein FliSQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31018883102187300hypothetical proteinBLASTP
31022423102598357flaG family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31026143102832219carbon storage regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31028323103263432flagellar assembly factor FliWQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31033523104314963flagellar hook-associated protein 3QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
310433231062001869flagellar hook-associated protein FlgKQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31064893106893405flgN family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31068933107174282regulator of flagellin synthesis FlgMQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
310767131088311161flagellar motor switch protein FliNQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31088243109819996flagellar motor switch protein FliMQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31098473110242396putative chemotaxis protein CheWQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31103423110701360chemotaxis protein CheYQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31107293111328600chemotaxis protein CheCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
311135431134292076chemotaxis protein CheAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31134423114212771chemotaxis protein methyltransferase CheRQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
311422731152911065protein-glutamate methylesterase CheBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31153143115802489chemotaxis protein CheDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31158193116265447chemotaxis protein CheWQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
311628131183142034hypothetical proteinBLASTP
311856731205221956PTS system glucose family IIABC componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP