Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_012563 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_012563:2761570 Clostridium botulinum A2 str. Kyoto, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was isolated from a case of infant botulism in Kyoto, Japan in 1978. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.


This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
276157027626611092radical SAM domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27626542763358705ribonuclease IIIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27634832763716234acyl carrier proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
276379427648011008fatty acidphospholipid synthesis protein PlsXQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27648912765073183ribosomal protein L32 family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27650872765587501hypothetical proteinBLASTP
276570527668981194acetate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27670382768036999phosphate acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27683712769249879hypothetical proteinBLASTP
27696162770335720D-proline reductase gamma subunit PrdB selenocysteine-containingQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27703652770640276hypothetical proteinBLASTP
277064927727632115D-proline reductase PrdA proproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27727962772966171hypothetical proteinBLASTP
277298827741061119putative electron transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27751032775999897hypothetical proteinBLASTP
277630927783272019methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27787172778902186BLASTP
277934727804321086hypothetical proteinBLASTP
278050927815851077hypothetical proteinBLASTP
278214027835851446amino acid permease family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27837232784610888hypothetical proteinBLASTP
278514027861471008proline racemaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27861612786631471BLASTP
27866452787421777BLASTP
27877622788487726D-proline reductase gamma subunit PrdB selenocysteine-containingQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27885632788838276hypothetical proteinBLASTP
278884727909552109D-proline reductase PrdA proproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27909802791156177hypothetical proteinBLASTP
279117827922961119putative electron transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27929372793599663hypothetical proteinBLASTP
279363927949431305putative electron transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27949422795058117hypothetical proteinBLASTP
2795214279528875hypothetical protein
27955362796063528hypothetical proteinBLASTP
27960682796547480hypothetical proteinBLASTP
27967632796942180transposaseQuickGO ontology
27970382797466429PrdA domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
279749727988071311putative electron transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
279898328007371755sensory box sigma-54 dependent transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
280107328023021230hypothetical proteinBLASTP