Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_012563 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_012563:2230403 Clostridium botulinum A2 str. Kyoto, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was isolated from a case of infant botulism in Kyoto, Japan in 1978. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22304032231029627flavin reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22316562231910255Hep_Hag repeat-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22325412233539999putative internalinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
223356122356092049carbohydrate binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
223577122378612091sigma-54 dependent transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22382302238478249hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22384912238859369putative endoribonuclease L-PSPQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
223890122401961296sodiumdicarboxylate symporter family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
224021822413871170aminotransferase classes I and IIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
224170122429901290hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22433332244331999putative internalinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
224435222465712220hypothetical proteinBLASTP
224677222482111440sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22482012248866666DNA-binding response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22493102250125816hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22501512250906756putative ABC transporter permease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
225092222523551434ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP