Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_012563 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_012563:1681639 Clostridium botulinum A2 str. Kyoto, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain was isolated from a case of infant botulism in Kyoto, Japan in 1978. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16816391682475837nicotinate-nucleotide diphosphorylase carboxylatingQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
168245616837571302L-aspartate oxidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16837601684674915quinolinate synthetase complex A subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16850461685546501hypothetical proteinBLASTP
168556316866121050phage integraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16865991686820222DNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16869081687036129hypothetical protein
16870071687369363DNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16878151688015201DNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16880161688717702phage regulatory protein Rha familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16887181688879162hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16888921689032141hypothetical protein
16890351689229195hypothetical protein
16892451689442198hypothetical protein
16894561689599144phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16895921689759168hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16897621690019258hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16900681690229162hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16902071690518312hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16905181690739222hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16908721691369498phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16913691691998630essential recombination function proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16920001692284285hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16922951693182888putative phage replisome organizerQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
16935231693882360hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16938951694449555hypothetical protein
16944521694640189hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16946521694930279hypothetical protein
16949781695697720hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16957411695917177hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16959321696120189hypothetical protein
16961811696294114hypothetical protein
16963661696551186hypothetical protein
16965901696784195hypothetical proteinBLASTP
169691316979621050hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16980691698782714hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16987791698964186hypothetical protein
16989511699100150hypothetical protein
16991121699282171hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16992721699658387hypothetical proteinBLASTP
16999181700130213hypothetical proteinBLASTP
17001311700736606phage integrase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17010341701531498hypothetical proteinBLASTP
17015861701948363HNH endonuclease domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17021091702591483phage terminase small subunit P27 familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
170259117043331743putative phage terminase large subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP