Pre_GI Gene

Some Help

Host: NC_010674 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010674:950276 Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B is a nonproteolytic botulism neurotoxin B strain. This strain was isolated from marine sediments taken off the coast of Washington, USA and was not associated with botulism. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
950276950500225hypothetical protein
950572950919348hypothetical proteinBLASTP
950925951317393putative sigma factorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
951467951649183hypothetical proteinBLASTP
951654952292639site-specific recombinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
952588953067480hypothetical proteinBLASTP
953077953535459HNH endonuclease domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
953624954085462phage terminase small subunit P27 familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
9540889557701683putative phage terminase large subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
955781955960180hypothetical protein
9559689571701203phage portal protein HK97 familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
957171957797627phage prohead protease HK97 familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
9578469589311086phage major capsid protein HK97 familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
958979959269291hypothetical proteinBLASTP
959262959582321putative phage head-tail adaptorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
959666960034369phage protein HK97 gp10 familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
960039960374336Gp10 proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
960411961010600major tail proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
961058961372315Gp12 proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
961447961878432hypothetical proteinBLASTP
9619499652093261phage tail tape measure protein familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
965214965930717prophage pi2 protein 43QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
9659279676121686Gp14 proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
9676259690761452hypothetical proteinBLASTP