Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010674 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010674:858397 Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B is a nonproteolytic botulism neurotoxin B strain. This strain was isolated from marine sediments taken off the coast of Washington, USA and was not associated with botulism. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.


StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8583978599591563flagellar M-ring protein FliFQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8599668609821017flagellar motor switch protein FliGQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
860966861739774flagellar assembly proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8617578630641308flagellar protein export ATPase FliIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
863099863542444flagellar export protein FliJQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8635498648321284putative flagellar hook-length control proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
864844865809966flagellar hook assembly protein FlgDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
865813866202390flagellar operon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8663458674451101flagellar hook protein FlgEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8676428687361095flagellar hook protein FlgEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
868830869021192hypothetical proteinBLASTP
869037869852816chemotaxis protein MotAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
869855870598744chemotaxis protein MotBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
870604871083480flagellar basal body-associated protein FliLQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
871164871484321putative flagellar proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
871487872266780flagellar biosynthetic protein FliPQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
872278872547270flagellar biosynthetic protein FliQQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8725658744061842flagellar biosynthetic proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8744368765022067flagellar biosynthesis protein FlhAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8765028777131212flagellar biosynthetic protein FlhFQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
877707878567861ATPases involved in chromosome partitioning MinD familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP