Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010674 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010674:658596 Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B is a nonproteolytic botulism neurotoxin B strain. This strain was isolated from marine sediments taken off the coast of Washington, USA and was not associated with botulism. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
658596659519924hypothetical proteinBLASTP
6595986610971500hypothetical proteinBLASTP
6611006622541155putative oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
6623896635551167hypothetical proteinBLASTP
6637586657131956aco operon expression regulatory proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
6659676670401074RR-butanediol dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
667061667948888conserved electron-transfer proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
6679516693421392glutamate synthase NADPH homotetramericQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
6696796713881710methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
671594672280687peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase cyclophilin-typeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
672363673076714hypothetical proteinBLASTP
673380673895516GnaT-family acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
674082674948867oxidoreductase short chain dehydrogenasereductase familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
675112675843732hydrolase alphabeta hydrolase fold familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
6761356771219873-oxoacyl-acyl-carrier-protein synthase IIIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP