Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010674 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010674:370629 Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B is a nonproteolytic botulism neurotoxin B strain. This strain was isolated from marine sediments taken off the coast of Washington, USA and was not associated with botulism. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3706293720321404FADFMN-containing dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
372614373456843phospholipase patatin familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3736253748391215SEC-C motif domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3750533761201068putative mannose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferasemannose-6-phosphate isomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
376394376975582hypothetical proteinBLASTP
377104377469366cadmium efflux system accessory proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3774873797542268cadmium-translocating P-type ATPaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
380146380778633redox-sensing transcriptional repressor rexQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3811253819077833-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3819873831261140acyl-coa dehydrogenase short-chain specificQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
383146383928783electron transfer flavoprotein beta subunitFixA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3839513849581008electron transfer flavoprotein alpha subunitFixB family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3850613859098493-hydroxybutyryl-coa dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
386073386507435hypothetical proteinBLASTP
3865823875089278-oxoguanine DNA glycosylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3876673891511485iron-dependent hydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
389349390044696alkaline phosphatase synthesis transcriptional regulatory proteinphoPQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3900483914631416two-component sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
391488392327840hypothetical proteinBLASTP
3923483933851038ABC transporter substrate-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
393778394062285chaperonin GroSQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3940763956981623chaperonin GroLQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
395913396317405putative pilinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3966533981071455inosine-5-monophosphate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP