Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_010674 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_010674:3581044 Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B is a nonproteolytic botulism neurotoxin B strain. This strain was isolated from marine sediments taken off the coast of Washington, USA and was not associated with botulism. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
358104435825581515hypothetical proteinBLASTP
358275735845711815sulfatase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
358493635864711536aminobenzoyl-glutamate transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35867033587167465acetobutylicum phosphotransbutyrylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35873623587799438hypothetical proteinBLASTP
35881153588516402hypothetical proteinBLASTP
3588547358862478tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3588629358870577tRNA-MetQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
358871435888301175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35888883591797291023S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35920273593531150516S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
359443035955361107glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase GlgD subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
359555835967181161glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
359682835986421815amylopullulanaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
359880836012492442glycogen phosphorylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
360128036027161437glycogen synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36028583605095223814-alpha-glucan branching enzymeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP